World System Transformations
Toward World System Transformations
Our present focus is on creating or transforming six key institutions. These changes will significantly improve the United Nations system for governing our global community. Such developments would move us toward our ultimate goal of a democratic united federation of nations. This kind of a federal system already exists in many modern nations, including the United States of America. These recommendations derive from the scholarly research in Professor Joseph E. Schwartzberg's book Transforming the United Nations System: Designs for a Workable World.
Improved UN Funding
The UN system presently lacks a good way of raising funds to deal with global problems. Proposals such as the financial transaction tax, a global carbon tax, or a tax on resources taken from the "Common Heritage" are difficult to implement now. We could change from the present highly political procedure for determining national assessments paid to the UN. We advocate a new arrangement where each nation-state is assessed the same low percentage of its Gross National Income (GNI). Adopting a rate of only 0.1 percent of GNI for each country would more than double the amount of money currently available to support the entire UN system.
Improve UN Peacekeeping and Deployment
Our world community needs a UN rapid deployment force, composed of individually recruited volunteers, to help avert armed conflicts worldwide. We should not be relying on the US military to keep peace around the world. We need a neutral international force that can move quickly into action when needed. This peacekeeping service will permit national governments to reduce their military expenditures.
Safeguard our Global Environment
The UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) needs to become the UN Economic, Social, and Environmental Council (ESEC), so that a major UN body has responsibility for dealing with environmental issues. It could institute fees for use of the global commons and channel those funds to a UN Environmental Protection Agency and a UN Planetary Disaster Relief Agency.
Improve Democratic Participation at the UN
The UN General Assembly should establish a UN Parliamentary Assembly. Party groups would initially send delegates from sitting members of national parliaments, as the EU constituted at first the European Parliament. The UN Parliamentary Assembly would originate measures designed to make the General Assembly more responsive to the human needs of the world’s populations. Such an advisory body would encourage a more direct relationship between individuals and the UN. It could provide a vehicle for promoting global consciousness among all world citizens.
Provide for Stronger UN Voting Powers
The member states should change the voting arrangement in the UN General Assembly from the present one-vote-per-nation system, regardless of a country's size, to a system of Weighted Voting. Each nation's vote would count on the basis of three factors: (1) its proportion of the world's population, (2) the portion of the UN budget which it pays, and (3) its being one state out of the total membership of the UN. This system would augment the current reliance on multilateral treaties to establish international law. Resolutions with the support of enough nations, people, and funding would then become binding and enforceable world laws.
Promote Progress on Security Council Reform
UN member states should change the system of participation and voting in the UN Security Council. Now the five victors in World War II have permanent seats while a few of the other countries serve two-year terms. All nations ought to be able to play a role in Security Council decisions. Universal Weighted Regional Representation can accomplish this result. According to one carefully developed proposal, each nation would join one of twelve regional groupings. A region's weighted vote would depend on three factors: (1) its percentage of the world's total population, (2) the portion of the total UN budget its members pay, and (3) its being one of twelve regions which equals 8.33% of the total. Each region with more than one nation would establish a process for determining how its representative will vote. Such balanced policy making would give Security Council decisions greater moral authority, and it provides an alternative to the present arrangement where one major power by itself can prevent Security Council action.
Facilitate and Support NGO Partnerships
A set of five UN Civil Coordinating Councils would encourage cooperation among civil society organizations (NGOs) associated with the UN. These Councils would each handle a different issue: (1) human rights, (2) the environment, (3) human development, (4) peace and security, and (5) democratic governance. The Councils would prioritize recommendations from the NGOs and work for their manifestation through appropriate agencies. Moreover, formalizing a Global Civil Society Forum to meet regularly would further open the UN to the planet’s citizenry. Such a duly constituted body could help define and focus world attention on implementing a Peoples' Agenda.